Clinical evidence


Validation studies

All VirtaMed surgical simulators have been thoroughly validated, and new simulation validation studies are being conducted constantly. Validation studies have analyzed the benefits of virtual reality for surgical education, compared the performance of novices and experts, and proved the transfer of acquired skills to the operating room.

Construct validity of UroSim® simulator for learning transurethral resection of bladder tumor

There is an increasing trend to incorporate Simulator-based training in urology residency programs. The study was designed to determine the construct validity of UroSim® for that we compared the performance of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) between experts and novices.

Validation of Virtual Reality Arthroscopy Simulator Relevance in Characterising Experienced Surgeons

Virtual reality (VR) simulation is particularly suitable for learning arthroscopy skills. Despite significant research, one drawback often outlined is the difficulty in distinguishing performance levels (Construct Validity) in experienced surgeons. Therefore, it seems adequate to search new methods of performance measurements using probe trajectories instead of commonly used metrics.

Module-Based Arthroscopic Knee Simulator Training Improves Technical Skills in Naive Learners: A Randomized Trial

Module-based simulation training provides additional training time and improves technical skills in naive health science students. It is hoped that this effect can be preserved and applied to junior resident developing in a busy residency program.

The Diagnostic Arthroscopy Skill Score (DASS): a reliable and suitable assessment tool for arthroscopic skill training

The results of this study indicate good validity and reliability of DASS for the assessment of the surgical performance of diagnostic knee arthroscopy during simulator training. Standardized training is recommended before arthroscopy surgery is considered in patients.

Active vs Passive Haptic Feedback Technology in Virtual Reality Arthroscopy Simulation: Which is Most Realistic?

Virtual Reality (VR) simulators are playing an increasingly prominent role in orthopaedic training and education. Face-validity - the degree to which reality is accurately represented - underpins the value of a VR simulator as a learning tool for trainees. Despite the importance of tactile feedback in arthroscopy, there is a paucity for evidence regarding the role of haptics in VR arthroscopy simulator realism.

Simulation Training for Embryo Transfer: Findings from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Embryo Transfer Certificate Course

The American Society for Reproductive Medicine Embryo Transfer Certificate Course data analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of simulator-based ET training for REI fellows across the 3 years of training, regardless of prior experience with live ET.

The ASSET Global Rating Scale is a Valid and Reliable Adjunct Measure of Performance on a Virtual Reality Simulator for Hip Arthroscopy

The purpose of this study is to further evaluate the construct validity and interobserver reliability of a hip arthroscopy virtual simulator using the Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET) global rating scale.

Cadaver versus Simulator Based Arthroscopic Training in Shoulder Surgery

There are few studies that compare the cadaver dissections with the medical simulators in means of talent improvement. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out if using cadaver dissections is still the golden standard for surgical training or using the medical simulators in surgery could replace cadaver dissections

Surgical Games: A Simulation-Based Structured Assessment of Orthopedic Surgery Resident Technical Skill

We describe the development and implementation of a timed, multitask, station-based Surgical Games to evaluate orthopedic resident surgical skills. (ArthroS™, VirtaMed AG, Schlieren, Switzerland)

Simulation-based Arthroscopic Skills Using a Spaced Retraining Schedule Reduces Short-term Task Completion Time and Camera Path Length

The aim of this study was to investigate whether acquiring basic knee arthroscopic skills via a spaced retraining schedule could prevent skills deterioration and achieve further skills improvement.

Virtual Reality Simulator Improves the Acquisition of Basic Arthroscopy Skills in First-year Orthopedic Surgery Residents

Arthroscopy training using a virtual reality (VR) simulator is said to improve the training of orthopedic surgery residents, although it has never been evaluated in a large representative population of first-year residents.

Validation of a Novel Hip Arthroscopy Simulator: Establishing Construct Validity

To assess the face, content and construct validity of a virtual reality hip arthroscopy simulator (ArthroS™, VirtaMed AG, Schlieren, Switzerland)

Validation of the Hip Arthroscopy Module of the VirtaMed Virtual Reality Arthroscopy Trainer

To assess the face, content and construct validity of a virtual reality hip arthroscopy simulator (ArthroS™, VirtaMed AG, Schlieren, Switzerland)

Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate: Simulation-Based Training Curriculum and Validation

To evaluate the face, content, and construct validity of a novel virtual reality simulator for holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and to assess its feasibility and acceptability as a training model.

Lessons Taught by a Knee Arthroscopy Simulator About Participants in a European Arthroscopy Training Programme

Investigates the hypothesis that a theoretical and practical training course improves the scores achieved on an arthroscopy simulator task.

Validation of a Virtual Reality–Based Hip Arthroscopy Simulator

To assess construct and face validity of a novel virtual reality–based hip arthroscopy simulator using the previously validated Arthroscopic Surgery Skills Evaluation Tool (ASSET), metric parameters, and a questionnaire.

Efficacy of an Arthroscopic Virtual Based Simulator for Orthopedic Surgery Residents by Year in Training

Determine the utility of the ArthroS™ arthroscopic simulator for orthopedic trainees based on their level of training (to determine at what point in training the simulator offers the most benefit for trainees).

Efficacy of standardized training for arthroscopic motor skills

Most studies demonstrated, that training on a virtual reality based arthroscopy simulator leads to an improvement of technical skills in orthopaedic surgery. However, how long and what kind of training is optimal for young residents is unknown. In this study we tested the efficacy of a standardized, competency based training protocol on a validated virtual reality based knee- and shoulder arthroscopy simulator.

Virtual reality surgical simulation for arthroscopy training

There is little doubt that the medical profession stands at a major crossroads with regards to the fundamental structure of surgical education. Although the apprenticeship model has been used for centuries, we are rapidly moving toward a new era of proficiencybased education. This transition is motivated by several important factors, including greater emphasis upon patient safety, increased focus on educational efficacy, and a shift toward objectively measured performance outcomes (i.e., demonstration of clinical proficiency). At the same time, the paradigm shift is challenged by limitations imposed by trainee work hour restrictions and by the initial investments and ongoing expenses associated with implementation of new training paradigms.

Global rating scales ASSET, BAKSSS, and IGARS compared

With the move to competency-based models of surgical training, a number of assessment methods have been developed. Of these, global rating scales have emerged as popular tools, and several are specific to the assessment of arthroscopic skills. Our aim was to determine which one of a group of commonly used global rating scales demonstrated superiority in the assessment of simulated arthroscopic skills.

Tübingen University Hospital on VirtaMed Gynecological Laparoscopy Simulation: Enabling Systematic Structured Education

We asked experts from the Women's Health Clinic at Tübingen University Hospital in Germany, one of the leading centers of excellence collaborating with VirtaMed on LaparoS™ development, to share their impressions on the value that the mixed reality simulator brings to training and education of gynecology residents.

Dr. Peter Šandera on LaparoS™: The future of surgical training

We asked Dr. med. Peter Šandera, Chief of Surgical Department at Schaffhausen Canton Hospital, Switzerland, to share insights on the benefits that Lap​aroS™mixed reality simulator offers to laparoscopic training.

Rotator Cuff Repair Simulation in Kuopio

Kuopio University Hospital (KUS) Microsurgery Center is the only place in Finland where a doctor can practice rotator cuff repair with a simulator. The new ArthroS™ Shoulder simulator was introduced for training in October.