Cadaver versus Simulator Based Arthroscopic Training in Shoulder Surgery

AuthorHuri G, Gülşen MR, Karmış EB, Karagüven D.


There are few studies that compare the cadaver dissections with the medical simulators in means of talent improvement. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out if using cadaver dissections is still the golden standard for surgical training or using the medical simulators in surgery could replace cadaver dissections.


The study is conducted during the European Orthopaedics & Traumatology Education Platform accredited Shoulder Club International Cadaver Course including a number of 34 orthopedics trainees. The participants were randomly divided into two groups to be trained with the simulator (Group 1) and on cadavers (Group 2), followed by a test performed on shoulder arthroscopy simulator (Virtamed ArthroS™, Switzerland). There was no conflict of interest before, during, or after the study. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


Arthroscopy; Coronavirus; Education; Shoulder; Simulator.


Group 2 had statistically significant higher Simulation Overview Procedure Time values than Group 1 (p<0.05) (Table 3), the meaning of which is: Participants trained with the simulator completed the given tasks in a shorter period of time. Group 2 had statistically significant higher Scratching of Humerus Cartilage values than Group 1 (p<0.05) (Table 4), which means: Participants trained with simulation has less scratching done on the humerus cartilage than the participants trained on a cadaver.


To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to compare VR Simulators with cadavers for surgical education in an objective manner, while using qualitative and quantitative data. According to this study, it is possible to state that VR Simulators are just as effective as cadavers in means of training subjects. As medical education will face a total change all around the world after the COVID-19 pandemic, this study has the potential to be an important guide during and after this period.