Validation of a Virtual Reality–Based Hip Arthroscopy Simulator

AuthorBauer DE, Wieser K, Aichmair A, Zingg PO, Dora C, Rahm S.


To assess construct and face validity of a novel virtual reality–based hip arthroscopy simulator using the previously validated Arthroscopic Surgery Skills Evaluation Tool (ASSET), metric parameters, and a questionnaire.


Metric parameters including task completion time, camera path, and grasper path were recorded, and the ASSET score was used to assess construct validity. Face validity was evaluated using a questionnaire.


Nine hip arthroscopy experts, of whom the majority performed more than 200 procedures (age, 48 ± 7.3; range, 38-61 years; 8 men, 1 woman), and 33 nonexperts (age, 33 ± 7.9; range, 26-62 years; 25 men, 8 women) performed 3 individual tasks on a virtual reality–based arthroscopy simulator of a left hip. The ASSET global rating scale showed a statistically significant difference between the hip arthroscopy expert and the nonexpert group, indicating strong construct validity (25.0 in the expert group, range, 17-34, versus 15.30 in the nonexpert group, range, 8-30 [P < .001], respectively). This also applied to most metric parameters recorded by the simulator. The simulator also demonstrated high face validity. The overall impression in terms of realism was graded “completely realistic” by 17% and “close to realistic” by 62% of participants.


The tested simulator demonstrated high construct and face validity.

Clinical Relevance

This study demonstrates the construct and face validity of a novel hip arthroscopy simulator. The device proved to be an adequate model for the simulation of some arthroscopic procedures of the hip.