Validation of the Hip Arthroscopy Module of the VirtaMed Virtual Reality Arthroscopy Trainer

AuthorGallagher K, Bahadori S, Antonis J, Immins T, Wainwright TW, Middleton R.


To assess the face, content and construct validity of a virtual reality hip arthroscopy simulator (Arthros™, VirtaMed AG, Schlieren, Switzerland)


Participants were divided into Expert and Novice groups depending on whether or not they had assisted with or performed more than 50 hip arthroscopy procedures. Participants were given a standardized introduction and shown a video on how to use the simulator. To familiarise themselves with the equipment, they were then given a 5-minute diagnostic task to complete. Participants then performed a therapeutic task. On completion, the simulator produced a summary of performance metrics for the following domains: Operation Time, Safety, Economy, Detailed Visualization and Overall Score. Participants completed a 7-point Likert-scale questionnaire to assess the face and content validity of the simulator.


University lab or exhibition stand at an orthopaedic conference.


Clinicians from a hospital orthopaedic department and attendees at a UK orthopaedic conference with varying levels of experience in hip arthroscopy surgery.


Twenty-two participants were recruited. Six were classified as Expert and 16 as Novice. Statistically significant differences were found between the Expert and Novice groups for Overall Score (p=0.001), Safety (p=0.002) and Economy (p=0.033), but not Detailed Visualization (p=0.097). Questionnaire responses were positive for all items related to face and content validity.


This study suggests that training on the ArthroS™ VR hip arthroscopy simulator has construct, face and content validity. It expands the evidence base for VR simulator training and is the first study to evaluate this hip arthroscopy module.